In cognitive anthropology, these schemas are referred to as cultural models.
Within the relational schemas or cultural models, people collectively develop, share, enact, and internalize a variety of scripts that contain a representational knowledge regarding a predetermined sequence of events and actions .
“With thousands of members across hundreds of kilometers, and interests in a number of different illicit activities, Barrio 18 is one of the more significant emerging criminal threats in the region.” In 2012, the violence between the two gangs hit endemic levels and El Salvador – a country about the size of Massachusetts -- was averaging 14 murders per day.
Barrio 18 is believed to operate in around 120 cities in 30 states, but has made its presence most felt in its home state of California.Much of the street crime in Los Angeles County is believed to be related to the gang and federal law enforcement said that while street-level drug dealing is Barrio 18’s main income source, the group has been linked to murders, assaults, arson, copyright infringement, extortion, human trafficking, illegal immigration, kidnapping, prostitution, robbery and weapons trafficking.While some trace the gang’s origins as far back as the 1950s, Barrio 18 truly came into being in the 1980s when it broke away from one of California’s oldest Hispanic gangs, Clanton 14. prisons was its spread southward through Mexico and Central America as U. immigration officials increased the number of criminal offenses that could lead to deportation.Barrio 18 originally was composed of Mexican immigrants or people of Mexican descent, but soon began incorporating other Latino nationalities as Los Angeles’ immigrant community diversified. The high numbers of gang members being deported paired with relatively weak governments in Central America helped Barrio 18 and MS-13 become potent criminal forces in El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala.These broader schemas and scripts of romantic and other sexual liaisons, partner selection, relationship dynamics, and power negotiations may help to better understand facilitators and barriers to HIV risk-reduction practices.
We conducted exploratory qualitative interviews with 60 HIV-uninfected heterosexual African-American women from rural counties in North Carolina and Alabama, and Hispanic women from an urban county in southern Florida.The wanton force involved – the killers used machetes and machine guns – bore all the hallmarks of MS-13, or Mara Salavtrucha, the uber-violent street gang that started in California but has since spread like a plague throughout Central America.While authorities can be forgiven for mixing up the two – both have members covered in head-to-toe tattoos, are well known for their murderous tactics and originated in some of the same Los Angeles neighborhoods – MS-13 and Barrio 18 are bitter rivals whose ongoing feud is responsible for the deaths of thousands across the U. “These two gangs have turned the Central American northern triangle into the area with the highest homicide rate in the world,” a 2013 Justice Department report on gang violence noted.Data were collected for relationship expectations; relationship experiences, and relationship power and decision-making.Interview transcripts underwent computer-assisted thematic analysis. Participants had a median age of 34 years (range 18–59), 34% were married or living as married, 39% earned an annual income of ,000 or less, 12% held less than a high school education, and 54% were employed. We identified two overarching relationship themes: contradictions between relationship expectations and desires and life circumstances that negated such ideals, and relationship challenges.Gender differences in relationship intentions and desires as well as communication styles, the importance of emotional and financial support, and the potential for relationships to provide disappointment were present in all subthemes.