The manner of the date’s mention in the Bible implies that it was revered as a keystone of Hebrew history and had been carefully preserved.The way it is written in the Hebrew implies that it is intended to be a precise figure (see Cassuto (1961, 52)) .Interestingly, the Greek Septuagint Bible gives 440 years in this verse.
When this frame of reference is used, parallels with the biblical account can be seen in the historical and archaeological data of the 12th and 13th Dynasties.
In particular, the hitherto inexplicable demise of the powerful 12th Dynasty, and the ruinous hiatus in Egyptian history that followed, are explained by the plagues, the loss of the slave workforce, demise of the ruling class, and the destruction of the army.
Key among them were: 1) that Ramesses II of the 19th Dynasty was the Pharaoh of the Israelite oppression, and 2) that Shoshenk I of the 22nd Dynasty was the biblical King Shishak that invaded Jerusalem (1 Kings ) about 925 BC (Rohl 1995, 138). 7) makes a good case that Ramesses II was actually Shoshenk, meaning that Ramesses II (traditionally ca 1279-1213) has been dated about 300 years too early under the chronology.
As a result of the arbitrary dynastic dates, Egyptologists invented a 400-year gap, called the Third Intermediate Period (TIP), between 1069 and 664 BC.
Three thousand years ago, the Book of Kings cited the Exodus as the chronological reference point for the beginning of Solomon’s temple construction in Jerusalem: “…In the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon’s reign over Israel, in the month Zif, which [is] the second month, that he began to build the house of the LORD.” (1 Kings 6:1 KJV) It is well established that Solomon’s reign began in 971-970 BC (Kitchen 2001), making 967-966 BC his fourth year.
Adding the 480 years gives the date of 1447-6 BC on our calendar.Explaining the Biblical Exodus Date The 480-year date of 1 Kings 6:1 requires some computation to translate it into our calendar system.The reign of King Solomon can be calculated from the biblical king lists and their correlations with the contemporary Assyrian chronology.The most glaring problems lie within, and just prior to, the Third Intermediate Period (TIP), which consists of Dynasties 21-25, classically dated 1069-664 BC.In this regard, the Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, which does not propose a revised chronology, notes that: “No pharaonic king-lists include the 21st-25th Dynasties….Adding 479 years (480 years inclusive) to 967 BC yields 1446 BC as the year of the Exodus.