In 1271, the Mongol leader Kublai Khan established the Yuan dynasty; the Yuan conquered the last remnant of the Song dynasty in 1279.
Han China gradually became the largest economy of the ancient world.Despite the Han's initial decentralization and the official abandonment of the Qin philosophy of Legalism in favor of Confucianism, Qin's legalist institutions and policies continued to be employed by the Han government and its successors.The Han expanded the empire's territory considerably, with military campaigns reaching Central Asia, Mongolia, South Korea, and Yunnan, and the recovery of Guangdong and northern Vietnam from Nanyue.Han involvement in Central Asia and Sogdia helped establish the land route of the Silk Road, replacing the earlier path over the Himalayas to India.Both the ROC and PRC continue to claim to be the legitimate government of all China, though the latter has more recognition in the world and controls more territory.
Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing. China is also a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), the BCIM and the G20.
In the south, the general Liu Yu secured the abdication of the Jin in favor of the Liu Song.
The various successors of these states became known as the Northern and Southern dynasties, with the two areas finally reunited by the Sui in 581.
The Song dynasty also saw a revival of Confucianism, in response to the growth of Buddhism during the Tang, However, the military weakness of the Song army was observed by the Jurchen Jin dynasty.
In 1127, Emperor Huizong of Song and the capital Bianjing were captured during the Jin–Song Wars.
He enacted Qin's legalist reforms throughout China, notably the forced standardization of Chinese characters, measurements, road widths (i.e., cart axles' length), and currency.