Time is determined by the number of such units that have preceded or elapsed with reference to a specific point in time.carbon sample: a quantity of organic material, usually charcoal, collected for radiocarbon dating.base-line: an arbitrary line established by stakes and string, or by surveying instrument, from which measurements are taken to produce a site-map, or to provide an initial axis for an excavation grid.
catalogue number: a number assigned all items recovered by archaeological research to cross-index them to the catalogue.cation-ratio dating: this method aspires to the direct dating of rock carvings and engravings, and is also potentially applicable to Paleolithic artifacts with a strong patina caused by exposure to desert dust.Artifacts are placed in a chemical solution, and by passing a weak current between them and a surrounding metal grill, the corrosive salts move from the cathode (object) to the anode (grill), removing any accumulated deposit and leaving the artifact clean.electron probe microanalysis: used in the analysis of artifact composition, this technique is similar to XRF (X-ray fluorescence spectrometry), and is useful for studying small changes in composition within the body of an artifact.carbon samples, soil samples, palynological samples etc.
anthropology: the study of humanity - our physical characteristics as animals, and our unique non-biological characteristics we call culture.
This method gives an estimate of cranial capacity and has been used on early hominid skulls.
calendrical system: a system of measuring time that is based on natural recurring units of time, such as revolutions of the earth around the sun.
cultural resource management (CRM): the safeguarding of the archaeological heritage through the protection of sites and through salvage archaeology (rescue archaeology), generally within the framework of legislation designed to safeguard the past.
culture-historical approach: an approach to archaeological interpretation which uses the procedure of the traditional historian (including emphasis on specific circumstances elaborated with rich detail, and processes of inductive reasoning).
it is based on the fact that changes in the earth's magnetic field over time can be recorded as remnant magnetism in materials such as baked clay structure (ovens, kilns, and hearths).